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Linxis Group

The DIOSNA glossary

Technological terms in an overview



Procedure of transferring process- and plant parameters to other production sizes. The effort for experimental determination of suitable process parameters during the transition of a recipe to a different machine size should be reduced by scaling-up methods.

Side spray

Lateral spraying of binder liquid into the product bed during granulation- or coating processes. The spraying device is arranged laterally to a circular line at the bottom. The side spray device (tangential spray) is mostly used in combination with a special air distributor plate, which provides for a rotating product movement.


Fluid bed plants feature product filters to separate the fines, to prevent them from getting into the exhaust air. Blow-back- and shaking filter systems are available. In case of blow-back filter systems, cartridge filters are blown-back by compressed air impulses whereupon the separated material falls back into the process. In case of shaking filter systems the cleaning of the filter hoses is effected by mechanical shaking of the filter assembly. To enable the material to fall back into the process, the air stream in the filter chamber has to be interrupted. With single chamber shaking filters the air flows through one single chamber. During cleaning the air flow is completely interrupted, so that the fluid bed breaks down for this period. Double chamber shaking filters feature two separate chambers, which are cleaned alternating. The air streams completely through either the one or the other chamber, so that the fluid bed is hardly affected.

Single Pot High Shear Mixer Granulator

Mixer granulator with gasstripping vacuum drying. As the processes of mixing, granulating, drying proceed in the same process bowl, the designation single-pot became established. Granulation is effected similar to those of a typical mixer granulator, whereas the design is different (vertical instead of lateral chopper, cylindrical instead of conical bow, tool with stripper).

Solid dosage forms

In the pharmaceutical technology drugs, which are taken in solid form as tablets, capsules or similar, are designated as solid dosage forms. The production of solid dosage forms is mostly based on powdery raw materials, which demand certain production procedures and requirements (granulation, containment, …). As an alternative to solid dosage forms there are also semisolid forms (ointments) and liquid forms available. Each dosage form requires its own specific production equipment and production environment.

Solvent recovery

Nowadays rarely still some solvent-moist processes are effected (granulation). During the drying of solvent-moist granules the solvents evaporate and load the exhaust air. Due to strict environmental regulations it is not permitted to release the solvents into the environment. Thus exhaust air cleaning (catalytic, combustion, washing out) or a recycling of the solvents by condensation is required.


The production of pellets require the process of spheronisation. Thereby short rod-shaped extrudates are rounded in a spheronizer (rotating round disk). Afterwards the still soft pellets are dried in a fluid bed unit.

Split butterfly valve

Flap system, which is often used with containment applications to realise a contamination-free product transfer between two containers. The valve consists of an active flap and a passive flap. With the connection both flap bodies are gap-free placed on each other, so that a unit is formed. The driven active flap opens both flap elements and the product can be transferred from the one into the other bowl. As only the two inner flap surfaces are product-contacted and the outside flap surfaces are placedhighly on each other during the product transfer, there is no contamination of the production environment when the bowl is undocked.

Spray drying

Process to obtain the solids from a suspension. With help of a suitable spraying system the suspension is atomised to fine liquid particles and dried by hot gas in counter flow. The liquid evaporates and the solid particles remain as fine powder, which is mostly subject to a subsequent granulation to improve the solid material characteristics.

Spray dryer granulator

Fluid bed plant, which is configured in a way that shell like, round and compact spray granules are build from starter particles acting as nucleus by repeated spraying and drying. The nucleus is firstly spray dried from a suspension. Instead of generating the starter particles by spray drying, also fine powder (possibly secondary inert material) could be used as nucleus.

Spray granulation

Fluid bed spray granulation. The designation is sometimes also used for spray drying granulation (spray dryer granulator).

Spray gun

Liquid-bearing system with a spray nozzle to atomise the added liquid. In fluid bed units mostly two-fluid nozzles are used providing liquid atomisation to finest droplets with the help of compressed air. Thus in addition to the liquid the spray gun also leads the compressed air (atomisation air, control air) to the nozzle. The spray gun is either installed laterally in the filter housing (top spray), laterally in the material bowl (tangential spray) or from below in the material bowl (bottom spray).

Spray rate

Amount of the added liquid per time during a spray process. The spray rate hast to be adjusted to the targeted process. The spray granulation usually works with high spray rates to realise a high moisture load. Coating processes usually work with lower spray rates as an agglomeration should be avoided and a homogeneous liquid application is requested. The achievable spray rate depends the on air volume stream and inlet air temperature and can be assessed with help of the Mollier-(hx)-diagram.

Strip gas feeding

Addition of drying gas into a single-pot granulator via nozzles embedded in the bowl bottom. The strip gas improves the drying of the product by accelerated discharge of moisture.

Sugar coating

Production of -> dragées by covering of tablets with sugar solution. Compared with a film coating process a much thicker layer is applied. Due to the high viscosity of the sugar solution special nozzles are used and the process is carried out in an alternating procedure of individual phases of application, polishing, drying.